From Intercountry Adoption to Global Surrogacy: A Human Rights History and New Fertility Frontiers.
Rotabi, Karen Smith. Bromfield, Nicole F.
xvi, 178 p.
Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
711 Third Avenue
New York, NY 20017
This text presents a detailed history of intercountry adoption and surrogacy, shares findings from research involving surrogate mothers in the United States and India, and considers human rights concerns and policy implications. The book begins with an overview of the early beginnings of intercountry adoption, the impact of World War II, and the adoption of children from South Korea, Vietnam, Latin America, China, Cambodia, and Haiti. Chapter 2 investigates the politics of adoption from Romania to Russian and reviews research findings on children languishing in residential care facilities. Chapter 3 considers the impact of poverty on adoption and the passage of The Hague Convention on Intercounty Adoption (HCIA) to provide social protections for orphaned and vulnerable children and their families. Adoption fraud is addressed in Chapter 4, using the Guatemala experience to illustrate a corrupt system of intercountry and human-trafficking dynamics. Chapters 5 uses case studies of India and the United States to discuss how child-protection systems of care can ensure child rights in family support and adoption. The following chapter discusses problems with adoption in different African countries, and Chapter 7 investigates the growth of global surrogacy, scandals, and the banning of commercial surrogacy in Canada and many European countries. Chapter 8 reports findings from an analysis of 21 publicly available blogs written by American gestational surrogates. Findings indicate the surrogates had pride in their surrogacy work, strongly identified with being a member of a surrogate community, had a commitment to surrogacy education and advocacy, placed emphasis on the child not being their baby, stressed the importance of the relationship with the commissioning parents, and avoided discussion compensation. Chapter 9 shares findings from research involving 25 Indian surrogates that indicate all were from impoverished backgrounds, viewed their surrogacy as work, had cesarean deliveries, experienced emotional turmoil, and believed they were not being taken advantage of. The final chapter contemplates the future of intercountry adoption and global surrogacy and makes recommendations for protecting surrogates. 10 figures, 6 tables, and numerous references.
Intercountry adoption; Surrogate mothers; ETHICS; BLACK MARKET ADOPTION; guidelines; Africa; cross cultural studies; birth mothers; India; poverty; human rights