Parental PTSD, Adverse Parenting and Child Attachment in a Refugee Sample.
van Ee, Elisa. Kleber, Rolf J. Jongmans, Marian J. Mooren, Trudy T.M. Out, Dorothee.
Published: April 2016
Attachment & Human Development
Vol. 18, No. 2 , p. 273-291
Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
711 Third Avenue
New York, NY 20017
In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on families by studying the unique contribution of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting behavior on child attachment in a highly traumatized sample of 68 asylum seekers and refugees and their children (18–42 months). The results show that parental symptoms of PTSD are directly related to children’s insecure attachment and disorganized attachment. The greatest proportion of the risk could be attributed to factors related to the dyad and not the family. A mediation effect of adverse parenting behavior was not confirmed. On the one hand the results indicate the need for an effective treatment of PTSD symptomatology while on the other hand the results indicate the need for clinical attention to insecure attachment relationships. (Author abstract)
posttraumatic stress disorder; parenting skills; attachment disorder; parent child relationships; trauma; refugees; mentally ill parents; risk factors; children