Ethnic-Racial Socialization Practices Among Latino Immigrant Families: A Latent Profile Analysis.
Published: April 2019
Vol. 68, No. 2 , pp. 246-259
John Wiley & Sons
111 River Street
Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774
Objective To examine profiles of Latinx immigrant parents' use of ethnic–racial socialization (ERS) strategies, as well as demographic, cultural, and sociopolitical factors associated with those profiles. Background Few studies have examined ethnic–racial socialization strategies beyond cultural socialization among Latinx immigrant families. This study was designed to assess 6 ERS strategies: cultural socialization, promotion of mistrust, adapt (preparation for bias, avoidant coping), advocate (preparation for bias, active coping), promoting the value of diversity, and educating about nativity and documentation status. Method Using a cross‐sectional design and a sample of 300 immigrant parents (80% of whom were mothers; overall mean of 3 children). A new validated ERS measure was used along with measures of familismo, social support, and discrimination. Results Profile analysis revealed 3 ERS profiles: Low ERS, Moderate ERS, and High ERS. Although parents in the sample used all the ERS strategies, they used adapt and promotion of mistrust with less frequency relative to other strategies across the 3 profiles. Four demographic variables and 2 cultural variables predicted profile membership. Conclusion This study advances understanding of how Latinx immigrant parents socialize their children in the context of resurgent antiimmigrant sentiment and policy and illuminates the complexities in the ERS process. Implications Practitioners should assess for strategies parents use to prepare their children for racial interactions and the support structures parents have in place. In addition, future interventions need to account for ERS strategies, which are a particularly critical aspect of parenting among immigrants given current attitudes toward immigration in the United States. (Author abstract)
socialization; Hispanics; children of immigrants; acculturation; advocacy; child rearing