First-Generation Immigrant Mothers Report Less Spanking of 1-Year-Old Children Compared with Mothers of Other Immigrant Generations.
Ragavan, Maya I. Griffith, Kevin. Bair-Merritt, Megan. Cabral, Howard J. Kistin, Caroline J.
Department of Pediatrics.
Maternal and Child Health Journal
Vol. 23, No. 12 , p. 496-503
Springer International Publishing AG
233 Spring Street
New York, NY 10013
Tel: 212-460-1500 800-SPRINGER
Introduction The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages spanking, especially of infants and young toddlers. This study examines the association between maternal immigrant generation and reported spanking of 1-year-old children, and whether this association is impacted by domestic violence (DV). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis using 1-year wave data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. We used descriptive statistics to explore demographic differences among first-generation, second-generation, and third-generation or higher (reference group) mothers. We conducted logistic regression to examine the association between immigrant generation and spanking, controlling for covariates. We used stratified logistic regression to evaluate how experiencing DV may impact the association between immigrant generation and spanking. Results The study included 370 first-generation mothers, 165 second-generation mothers, and 1754 reference group mothers. The prevalence of spanking differed across immigrant generations (p = 0.004). First-generation mothers had statistically significant lower odds of spanking compared with the reference group (adjusted OR 0.26; CI 0.11-0.64). Second-generation mothers also had lower odds of spanking compared with the reference group, although this result did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR 0.60; CI 0.22-1.63). Mothers' report of experiencing DV appeared to impact the relationship between immigrant generation and spanking. Discussion First-generation immigrant mothers had lower odds of reported spanking compared to reference group mothers, an association which is attenuated for both second-generation immigrant mothers and mothers who have experienced DV. Future work should explore the potential factors that drive variations in spanking between immigrant generations. (Author abstract)
immigrants; children of immigrants; corporal punishment; maternal behavior; child rearing; pediatrics; Spouse abuse; risk factors